The archaeological collection currently consists of about 600,000 units, but the number of collection objects is significantly higher. The beginnings of the collection date back to the times of Břetislav Jelínek (1843–1926), the first curator (and first director from 1895) of the former Municipal Museum of Prague. The collection of Josef Antonín Jíra (1868–1930) is the true fundament (and the most valuable part) of the archaeological collections of the museum. Having been built individually beginning in the late 19th century, it was displayed in Hanspaulka Chateau in Prague – Dejvice after 1912; in 1941 it became the Department of Archaeology of the Municipal Museum. After the mid-1940s, the archaeological collection expanded because of the terrain research of the museum. In the last two decades, other institutions that do not create collections help expand the collection by providing the findings of their own archaeological research to the City of Prague Museum.
The earliest part of the archaeological collection (the “old archaeological collection”, i.e. the original collection of the Municipal Museum of Prague and Jíra’s collection; the terrain research findings until 1970) is located in the museum depository in Prague – Stodůlky. Between 2004 and 2011, a modern depository for the fast-growing collection was built in Vojtěchov in the Benešov region. The collection is open to researchers by prior appointment and keeping the standard rules.
The archaeological collections also include the Archives of the Finding Reports of the Department of Archaeological Collections of the City of Prague Museum, which includes nearly 2,000 items, Archives of the Department of Archaeological Collections of the City of Prague Museum, which collects virtually all documents about the City of Prague’s archaeology and entire collections from the late 19th century, and the Photo Archives of the Department of Archaeological Collections of the City of Prague Museum, largely documenting collection objects and terrain events.